Keloids or hypertrophic scars can be caused by dermal injury, particularly reticular dermis. The injury will be followed by inflammation of the healing wound. Therefore, the reticular layer of keloids consists of increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, collagen deposits, and pro-inflammatory factors.
They appear as red or pink elevated firm nodules or rubber lesions. Most common sites affected are chest, arms, neck and ear lobules.
Various treatment modalities include